By Dr Ghazally Ismail Tahan Holidays Sdn Bhd


Tourism: A major economic force

1. contribution to global GDP

2. number of jobs it generates

3. number of client it serves


Downside to Mass Tourism

1. Offers both opportunities and threats to biodiversity

2. More than 60 countries today view ecotourism as a viable alternative to mass tourism


What is ecotourism?
“ low impact nature tourism which contributes to the maintenance of species and habitats either directly through a contribution to conservation and/or indirectly by providing revenue to the local community sufficient for local people to value and therefore protect, their wildlife heritage as a source of income”

Walpole and Goodwin (2000)
UNEP: Convention on Biological Diversity
1) conserve biological and cultural diversity
2) promote the sustainable use of biodiversity
3) share equitably the benefits of ecotourism with local communities and indigenous people

Putting the “Eco” into “Ecotourism”
1) Conservation agenda
2) Benefiting local communities
3) Sustainable development

  • Conservation of Rafflesia in Sabah

  • Conservation of primates in Sabah

  • Research on species conservation

  • Research on endangered species

  • Research on endemic species

  • Hands-on experience

  • X-treme X-perience

  • Birding tours

  • Equitable sharing of benefits

Ecotourism: A Sustainable Development?
‘ development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'
The 'Brundtland Report' (WCED, 1987)

Threats to sustainability

1) Environmental impact

2) Cultural Impact

Policies & Regulations

  1. Conservation fund

  2. Research fund

  3. Save habitat

  4. Empower communities

  5. Mapping Tourism Footprints

Eco-certification Program
1) accredit and incentivise genuine ecotourism operators
2) best practices of ecotourism – ecological sustainability, good management, safe and quality experiences
3) fostering environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation
4) accredits products not companies:Tours, Attractions and Accommodation .